People Hucho

History of researches ST

The Sakhalin taimen has been described by the American ichthyologist J. Brevoort according to the single specimen found in the fish market of the Japanese city Hakodate (Zolotukhin et al., 2000). Though Brevoort hasn't specified in the work from where this sample has arrived (Brevoort, 1856). Originally species carried the name Salmo perryi, then in 1876 has been renamed into Salmo blackistoni Hilgendorf (Schmidt, 1904). L.S. Berg has restored the initial specific name given by Brevoort, but has carried it to the genus Salvelinus (Berg, 1909). In the same place Berg has specified the local name "chevitsa" which isn't used many years, but passes from one publication into another.

On the basis of some morphological and osteological features and essential differences in ecology (a settled and way of life through passage) V.D. Vladykov has carried the Sakhalin taimen to the subgenus Parahucho (Vladykov, 1963; Vladykov, Gruchi, 1972; Bogutskaya, Naseka, 2004) that is confirmed with morphological researches (Shaposhnikova, 1967, 1968, 1975) and some time was considered as conventional (Dorofeyeva et al., 1980; Holĉik, 1982). The most important signs distinguishing ST from close species of H. hucho and H. taimen is larger scales and weaker soshnik.

 The set of works has been devoted to proofs of independence of genus Parahucho by different methods: kariological (Anbinder et al., 1982; Viktorovsky et al., 1985), osteological (Romanov, 1988), elektroforetical (Ryabova et al., 1981). Further it has been confirmed with genetic data: on different types of markers of difference between Hucho and Parahucho have appeared more, than between Hucho and Brachymystax (Osinov, 1991; Shed’ko et al., 1996; Phillips et al., 1995; Oakley, Phillips, 1999). Moreover, Hucho and Parahucho characterize various SINE elements (Matveev et al., 2007). The version about antiquity of origin of ST was convincingly proved by M.K. Glubokovsky (Glubokovsky, Glubokovskaya, 1981; Glubokovsky 1983, 1990, 1995). However modern molecular researches indicate the place of Parahucho just before divergence of branch of Oncorhynchus  (Wilson, Williams, 2010; Shed'ko et al., 2012; Crete-Lafeiere et al., 2012; Campbell et al., 2013; Alexandrou et al., 2013; Zhivotovsky, 2015; Lappin et al., 2016; Horreo, 2017).

The first short information about ST on Sakhalin brings M.S. Mitsul (1873), A. M. Nikolsky (1881), N.V. Slyunin (1895) and P. Yu. Schmidt (1904). One of the first works devoted to biology of ST has been written on the basis of the degree student of biology faculty of MSU M. Martsinkevichene (Krykhtin et al., 1964). On the materials collected the Sakhalin limnological expedition of MSU under the leadership of O.A. Klyuchareva on fishery inspection of lakes of the Southern Sakhalin and the island of Kunashir in 1959-1963 several articles about growth and food of ST are written (Zavgorodnyaya et al., 1964; Klyuchareva, 1964; Klyuchareva, Svetovidova, 1968). The role of ST as predator concerning juveniles of salmons is shown (Gritsenko, Ardavichus, 1967; Volovik, Gritsenko, 1970; Tagmazyan, 1974).

On Sakhalin O.F. Gritsenko's with coauthors versatily studied ST (Gritsenko et al., 1974; Gritsenko, Churikov, 1977, 1980; Gritsenko, 1990, 2002). Many materials on ST were collected by S.N. Safronov with disciples (Safronov et al., 1998; Safronov, 2004, 2009; Safronov, Sukhonos, 2006; Sukhonos, Safronov, 2006; Nikitin, 2012). Some time of ST was object of studying of SakhNIRO (Korablina, 2002; Burlachenko, 1997). Also Kuril populations of ST haven't remained unaddressed (Sokov, 1998; Sidorov, 2005).

To Primorye researches of biology and ecology of ST during the river period of life were conducted by V.P. Bushuyev, V.N. Ivankov, I.Z. Parpura, A.Yu. Semenchenko and N.I. Krupyanko (Bushuev, 1978, 1983; Ivankov et al., 1984; Parpura, Semenchenko, 1989; Parpura, 1990, 1991; Krupianko, 2002; Semenchenko, 2003).

In 2000 S.F. Zolotukhin and A.Yu.Semenchenko have published the popular scientific book "Taymens and lenoks of the Russian Far East". The same researchers were invited by "Sakhalin energy" and "Sakhalin salmon initiative" for works on Sakhalin after which was big articles are published in collections of Levanidovsky readings (Zolotukhin, Semenchenko, 2008; Semenchenko, Zolotukhin, 2011).

In 2003 in Khabarovsk at the initiative of Wild Salmon Center the international conference "Reserve Territories for Protection of Salmon and its Environment" at which several reports on territorial protection of ST (Zolotukhin, Shishayev, 2004; Zolotukhin, 2004; Safronov et al., 2004) has been held.

To Hokkaido growth and food of ST studied Okada (Okada, 1961) and Yamashiro (Yamashiro, 1965; Yamashiro et al., 1975), data on conditions of spawning and development of embryos were provided by Kimura (Kimura, 1966), about growth, food and migrations – Kavamura and Edo (Kawamura et al., 1983; Edo et al., 2005; Mori, Nomoto, 2005). The spawning behavior and parameters of spawning redds are also well studied (Fukushima, 1994; Mori et al., 1997; Edo, 2001, 2007; Edo et al., 2000; Fukushima, 2001; Esteve et al., 2009, 2011).

Migrations of ST studied by means of modern methods of microchemistry and  otolitometry (Arai et al., 2004; Suzuki et al., 2008, 2011; Arai, 2010; Honda et al., 2010a; Zimmerman et al., 2011) and also acoustic telemetry (Honda et al., 2009, 2010b, 2012). Several years proceed on the Sarufutsu River the project on accounting of producers by means of the sonar (Rand, Fukushima, 2014).

With the different purposes proceeded morphological (Pichugin, Sidorov, 2008), genetic (Shed’ko, 2002; Froyfe et al., 2004; Hatakeyama et al., 2005; Matveev et al., 2007; Oleynik, Skurikhina, 2008; Kopun et al., 2009; Kukhlevskiy et al., 2010, 2012; Shedko et al., 2012; Skurikhina et al., 2013; Shed’ko et al., 2013; Balakirev et al., 2014) and also biochemical researches ST (Shimizu et al., 2000; Amer et al., 2001; Hiramatsu et al., 1997; 2001; Higashino et al., 2003; Tokushima et al., 2005; Amano et al., 2010).

Several articles are devoted to parasites, specific to ST, (Nagasawa et al., 1987, 1994; Nagasawa, Urawa, 1991; Hiramatsu et al., 2001; Shedko, Shedko, 2003). Relationship of ST with invasive species of fish, such as iridescent trout, was studied to Hokkaido (Kitano, 2005; Nomoto, 2010; Nomoto et al, 2010).

Many researches were conducted for clarification of dependences of number of ST during the river period of life from environment conditions (Sagawa et al., 2002, 2003; Fukushima, Kameyama, 2006; Fukushima et al., 2007, 2008, 2011; Nomoto, 2010; Honda et al., 2012). Big article about reconstruction of historical distribution of species and the reasons of his disappearance is published in Transactions of American Fisheries Society (Fukushima et al., 2011). On Sakhalin monitoring of populations in zone of activity of large oil and gas projects was carried out (Efanov, 2012). The place of ST in communities of fishes was explored by A.A. Zhivoglyadov (2001, 2004). Also environment formation activity of ST was studied (Koltsov, 1995).

A number of works it is devoted to development of bases of artificial reproduction of ST at the salmon hatcheries (Hatkevich, 1973; Korablina, 1992; Kimura, Hara, 1993; Burlachenko, 1995; Kawamula et al., 1996; Zelenkin, Fedorova, 1997; Ivanova, Ivanov, 1999; Korablina, Ivanova, 2001; Ivanova et al., 2001a, 2001b; Mikodina, Lyubayev, 2005; Makeev, Samarsky, 2013; Makeyev et al., 2013).

Population and genetic structure of ST Doctor L.A. Zhivotovsky and his disciple A.A. Yurchenko studied several years. Development of two-level strategy of conservation of species taking into account its population and genetic structure became result (Zhivotovsky et al., 2011, 2015; Shitova et al., 2012; Yurchenko et al., 2012; Yurchenko, 2015a, 2015b; Zhivotovsky, 2016). Also several messages at conferences are devoted to the general strategy of conservation of ST (Makeev, 2012, 2013; Makeev et al., 2014).

For ST populations of Hokkaido the elements of strategy of conservation are offered (Edo et al., 2000, 2005; Fukushima, Kameyama, 2006; Fukushima et al., 2007, 2008, 2011; Nomoto, 2010; Akiba et al., 2012). Fortunately, so far prematurely to apply such method of preservation as a genome cryopreservation to ST, but also he was developed (Kusuda et al., 2004, 2005).

Conservation of the Sakhalin taimen became focus of the international attention of nature protection and scientific community. The international seminars and symposiums devoted to this type and genus of taymen have taken place in New Zealand, Japan and Poland (Makeyev, 2012; Rand, 2012; Semenchenko, Zolotukhin, 2012; Zolotukhin et al., 2013; Witkowski, Profus, 2013).

In 2012 the Sakhalin Taimen Conservation Network (STCN) into which the experts interested in conservation of this species have entered has been created.

Frame of STCN:

Glubokovsky Mikhail Konstantinovich, Dr

Zhivotovsky Lev Anatol’evich, Dr, professor,

Vorob'ev Nikolay Andreevich

Zavarzina Natalia Kirillovna,

Zelennikov Oleg Nikolaevich, PhD,

Zolotukhin Sergey Fedorovich, PhD,

Krever Ol’ga Nikolaevna, PhD,

Labay Vyacheslav Stepanovich, PhD,

Makeev Sergey Stepanovich,

Malyar Vasiliy Vasil'evich,

Nikitin Vitaliy Dmitrievich, PhD,

Parpura Igor Zakharovich, PhD,

Semenchenko Anatoliy Yur’evich, PhD,

Serebryakov Sergey Borisovich,

Scopets Michail Borisovich, PhD,

Sukhonos Pavel Sergeevich,

Turchin Roman Valer'evich,

Shveiger Oleg Aleksandrovich,

Shilin Nikolay Ivanovich,

Yurchenko Andrey Aleksandrovich, PhD,

Esteve Manu, PhD,

Fukushima Michio, PhD,

Rand S. Peter, PhD,

Witkowski Andrzhey, PhD, died 27.09.2017

Wroblewsky Mariush.

Памяти Сергея Никитича Сафронова

Памяти Олега Федоровича Гриценко